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Advances in New Technology for Targeted Modification of Plant Genomes
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Advances in New Technology for Targeted Modification of Plant Genomes
von: Feng Zhang, Holger Puchta, James G. Thomson
Springer-Verlag, 2015
ISBN: 9781493925568
171 Seiten, Download: 4085 KB
 
Format:  PDF
geeignet für: Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's Online-Lesen PC, MAC, Laptop

Typ: B (paralleler Zugriff)

 

 
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Inhaltsverzeichnis

  Contents 6  
  Contributors 8  
  Chapter 1: Double-Strand Break Repair and Its Application to Genome Engineering in Plants 10  
     1 DSB Induction as a Tool for Genome Manipulation in Plants 11  
     2 Mechanisms of DSB Repair Involving Homologous Sequences 12  
     3 The Chromosomal Site of the Template Makes a Difference 15  
     4 Extrachromosomal Templates 17  
     5 Factors Involved in Homologous Recombination 19  
     6 DSB Repair via Nonhomologous End Joining 21  
     7 From Gene Engineering to Genome Engineering: Inducing More Than One DSB at a Time 24  
     References 26  
  Chapter 2: Engineering Meganuclease for Precise Plant Genome Modification 30  
     1 Introduction 30  
     2 Engineering of Meganucleases for New Sequence Specificity 31  
        2.1 Yeast High-Throughput Screening Assay 32  
        2.2 Principle of the Two-Step Semi-rational Approach 33  
     3 Meganuclease Scaffold Optimization 35  
        3.1 Improvement of the Meganuclease Activity 35  
        3.2 Improvement of the Meganuclease Specificity 36  
           3.2.1 Obligatory Heterodimer 36  
           3.2.2 Single-Chain Molecule 37  
           3.2.3 Fusion HE-TALE 37  
     4 Factors Influencing the Meganuclease Activity In Vivo 38  
        4.1 Meganucleases Are Sensitive to Chromatin Compaction 38  
        4.2 Meganucleases Are Sensitive to CpG Methylation 38  
        4.3 Identification of Host Factors Regulating Homologous Gene Targeting 40  
        4.4 Increased Targeted Mutagenesis Frequency by Co-factors 40  
     5 Precise Plant Genome Modification with Meganucleases 41  
     6 Future Perspectives 43  
     References 44  
  Chapter 3: High Efficient Genome Modification by Designed Zinc Finger Nuclease 48  
     1 Introduction 48  
     2 Making and Testing ZFNs 49  
     3 Targeted Mutagenesis by ZFNs 53  
     4 Targeted Chromosomal Deletions and Inversions by ZFNs 54  
     5 Gene Replacement and Gene Stacking by ZFNs 54  
     6 Donor and/or ZFN Delivery 55  
     7 Cytotoxicity and Off-Targeting by ZFNs 56  
     8 Somatic Versus Germinal Modifications by ZFNs 56  
     9 Genetic Approaches to Facilitate High Frequency Genome Modifications 57  
     10 Future Perspective 58  
     References 58  
  Chapter 4: Engineered TAL Effector Proteins: Versatile Reagents for Manipulating Plant Genomes 63  
     1 Genome Editing Using TAL Effector Nuclease Technology 68  
     2 Methods to Engineer Novel TAL Effector Arrays 70  
     3 Modifying Genes Using TAL Effector Fusion Proteins 71  
     4 Optimizing TAL Effector Architecture 73  
     5 Factors Affecting DNA Binding 75  
     6 Conclusions 77  
     References 78  
  Chapter 5: Oligo-Mediated Targeted Gene Editing 81  
     1 Introduction 81  
        1.1 Gene Repair Oligonucleotide Structure 83  
        1.2 Delivery 84  
        1.3 RTDS Mechanism/Process 84  
        1.4 Application of RTDS 85  
           1.4.1 Targeting Acetohydroxyacid Synthase 85  
           1.4.2 Targeting Green Fluorescent Protein Transgenics 86  
     2 Materials and Methods 86  
        2.1 Oil Seed Rape AHAS 86  
        2.2 BFP to GFP Conversion in Arabidopsis 89  
     3 Results 89  
        3.1 Chromosomal Conversion 89  
           3.1.1 Oil Seed Rape AHAS 89  
           3.1.2 BFP to GFP Conversion in Arabidopsis 92  
     4 Discussion 93  
     References 95  
  Chapter 6: Gene Targeting in Crop Species with Effective Selection Systems 98  
     1 Introduction 99  
     2 General Background on Gene Targeting 100  
     3 Gene Targeting with Effective Selection Systems 105  
     4 Gene Targeting with Gene-Specific Selection 106  
     5 Gene Targeting with Positive–Negative Selection 106  
        5.1 Knockout and Knockin Targeting 109  
        5.2 Toward the Development of Desired Subtle and Localized Mutageneses 112  
     6 Future Prospects 114  
     References 115  
  Chapter 7: Recombinase Technology for Precise Genome Engineering 119  
     1 Introduction 120  
     2 Recombinase Types and Catalysis 121  
     3 Application: Excision 124  
     4 Application: Molecular Switches 127  
     5 Application: Transgene Insertion Site Resolution 128  
     6 Application: Integration 129  
     7 Application: Recombinase-Mediated Cassette Exchange 132  
     8 Application: Megabase Modifications/Chromosome Level Engineering 136  
     9 Conclusion: Benefits of Site-Specific Recombinase Technology and Future Directions 140  
     References 141  
  Chapter 8: Developing CRISPR Technology in Major Crop Plants 151  
     1 Introduction 151  
     2 Development of CRISPR Technology 152  
        2.1 The CRISPR/Cas Defense System 152  
        2.2 CRISPR Genome Engineering 153  
        2.3 Maximizing the Specificity of CRISPR 155  
     3 CRISPR Technology in Plants 156  
        3.1 Improving CRISPR Technology in Plants 156  
        3.2 Examples of Applications to Crop Plants 159  
           3.2.1 Rice 159  
           3.2.2 Wheat 161  
           3.2.3 Maize 161  
     4 Perspective and Conclusions 161  
        4.1 Developing CRISPR as a New Plant Breeding Technique for Next Generation Crop Improvement 161  
        4.2 Developing CRISPR for Regulating Plant Genomes 162  
     References 163  
  Index 166  


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