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Integration of Nature and Technology for Smart Cities
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Integration of Nature and Technology for Smart Cities
von: Anil Ahuja
Springer-Verlag, 2016
ISBN: 9783319257150
417 Seiten, Download: 17323 KB
 
Format:  PDF
geeignet für: Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's Online-Lesen PC, MAC, Laptop

Typ: B (paralleler Zugriff)

 

 
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Inhaltsverzeichnis

  Preface 6  
  Contents 8  
  List of Figures 16  
  Chapter 1: Smart Trends and Paradigm Shift 26  
     1.1 Energy Trends of Future 28  
     1.2 Network Trends and Shifts 28  
     1.3 Trends in Biophilia, Biomimicry, and Green Roofs and Streets 29  
     1.4 Conclusion 29  
  Part I: Smart Buildings and Smart Technologies 30  
     Chapter 2: Building Systems Engineering 31  
        2.1 An Introduction to Building Systems Engineering 31  
        2.2 The Emergence of Building Systems Engineering: Historical Perspective 34  
        2.3 Basic Vocabulary of Building Systems 35  
     Chapter 3: Basic Smart Building Systems 41  
        3.1 The Lighting System 42  
           3.1.1 Lighting Terminology and Common Definitions 45  
           3.1.2 Lamps 46  
           3.1.3 LEDs 48  
           3.1.4 Ballasts 49  
           3.1.5 Luminaires 50  
           3.1.6 Lighting and Energy 53  
        3.2 Power Systems 54  
        3.3 Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Systems 54  
        3.4 Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Systems 58  
           3.4.1 Overview of VRF Systems 62  
              3.4.1.1 Variable Refrigerant Flow or VRF Systems 65  
                 Types of VRF 71  
                    VRF Heat Pump Systems 71  
                    Heat Recovery VRF System (VRF-HR) 71  
                    Refrigerant Modulation in a VRF System 73  
              3.4.1.2 Electronic Expansion Valve (EEV) 74  
                 Design Considerations for VRF Systems 74  
                    Building Characteristics 75  
                    Building Load Profile 76  
                    Sustainability 77  
                    Simultaneous Heating and Cooling 77  
                 Energy Efficiency 78  
                 Reduced Noise Levels 79  
                 Reliability 80  
                    Indoor Unit 80  
                    Outdoor Unit 80  
                 Maintenance and Commissioning 80  
              3.4.1.3 VRF Challenges and Limitations 80  
                 Refrigerant Piping 80  
                    Compliance with ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 15-2001 81  
                 Oil Management 81  
                 Fresh Air Requirements (Compliance to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1) 81  
                 Particulate Matter Removal 82  
                 Environmental Concerns 82  
                 VRF Systems Are Proprietary Systems 83  
                 Reliability and Maintenance 83  
                 Performance Guarantee 83  
              3.4.1.4 Concluding 83  
                 Salient Features 83  
        3.5 Security Systems 91  
        3.6 Basic Fire Protection Systems (FPS) Used in Buildings 91  
           3.6.1 Fire Alarm, Detection, and Signaling Systems 92  
        3.7 MIE Equipment Arrangement 92  
        3.8 Building Systems Distribution Tree 97  
           3.8.1 Tree Care Cost and Conservation 102  
     Chapter 4: Air, Water, Power, and Internet Quality 103  
        4.1 Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and Modem Buildings 103  
           4.1.1 Contaminants and Their Sources 103  
           4.1.2 Clean Indoor Air Strategies 109  
           4.1.3 IAQ and Energy Conservation 111  
        4.2 Water Resources, Quality, and Building Systems 112  
           4.2.1 Water Reclamation 112  
           4.2.2 Water Recycling 114  
           4.2.3 Water Reuse 114  
        4.3 Power Quality and Intelligent Buildings 115  
           4.3.1 Power Impurities 118  
           4.3.2 Effects on Building Systems 121  
           4.3.3 Pure Power Solutions 123  
           4.3.4 Power Quality and Load Synchronization 125  
        4.4 Quality of Internet 125  
           4.4.1 Technology Paths 128  
              4.4.1.1 Societal Drivers Influence Technological Advancements 130  
        Suggested Reading 132  
     Chapter 5: Acoustics, Vibrations, and Integrated Building Systems 133  
        5.1 Introduction 133  
        5.2 Acoustical Environment of Buildings 134  
        5.3 Noise and Acoustic Planning Issues 135  
        5.4 Masking Sound 137  
        5.5 Acoustic Analysis 139  
        5.6 Solutions 141  
           5.6.1 Static Noise Control 142  
           5.6.2 Active Noise Control 143  
        5.7 Vibrations and Buildings 145  
     Chapter 6: Lightning, Electrostatic Discharge, and Buildings 147  
        6.1 Introduction 147  
        6.2 Mechanisms and Characteristics of Lightning 148  
        6.3 Building System Lightning Exposure and Protection 150  
        6.4 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD): An Introduction 153  
        6.5 Electrostatic Charge: Charging Mechanism 154  
        6.6 ESD Solutions 156  
     Chapter 7: Electromagnetic Waves, Noise, and Systems Susceptibility 157  
        7.1 Introduction 157  
        7.2 Geomagnetic Fields and Buildings 158  
        7.3 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) 159  
        7.4 Electromagnetic Shielding (EMS) 162  
        7.5 Electromagnetic Interference and Signal Protection 163  
        7.6 Grounding Systems of Buildings 166  
           7.6.1 High-Frequency Interference and Shield Grounding 168  
           7.6.2 Ground Loops 168  
     Chapter 8: From Microelectronic Technology to Information Technology 170  
        8.1 Intelligent Buildings 170  
        8.2 Intelligence Communication and Dissonance 172  
        8.3 Intelligence Source Objects, Quality, and Transmission 173  
        8.4 Intelligence Availability 175  
        8.5 Optical Fibers and Intelligent Buildings 177  
     Chapter 9: Energy Storage 181  
        9.1 Introduction 181  
        9.2 Thermal Storage 182  
           9.2.1 Applications and Requirements 182  
           9.2.2 Sensible Heat Storage 184  
           9.2.3 Water Thermal Storage 184  
           9.2.4 Latent Heat Storage 185  
           9.2.5 Ice Storage 186  
           9.2.6 System Configurations 187  
        9.3 Electrochemical Storage 190  
           9.3.1 Batteries 190  
           9.3.2 Battery Design and Types 192  
           9.3.3 Fuel Cells 193  
           9.3.4 Fuel Cell and System Efficiency 195  
        9.4 Passive Electrical Power Storage 196  
           9.4.1 Inductors 196  
           9.4.2 Capacitors 197  
        9.5 Active Electrical Power Storage (Solar Cells) 197  
        9.6 Batteries 199  
     Chapter 10: Integrated Building Systems Engineering and Automation 201  
        10.1 Introduction 201  
        10.2 Integration and Protocols 203  
        10.3 The Internet of Things 206  
        10.4 Active Energy 208  
     Chapter 11: Atmospheric Radiation Soup and Buildings and Internet of Things 211  
        11.1 Introduction 211  
        11.2 Basics of Radiation 211  
           11.2.1 US Standards (Fig. 11.4) 215  
           11.2.2 International Standards 216  
        11.3 Protective Role of the Atmosphere 217  
        11.4 Radiation Balance 218  
        11.5 Buildings and Radiation Albedo 220  
        11.6 Ozone Layer 221  
        11.7 The “Greenhouse” Effect 222  
     Chapter 12: Reliability Requirements, Risk Management, and Associated Building Systems Engineering 224  
        12.1 Introduction 224  
        12.2 Basic Reliability Terminology 225  
        12.3 Building System Reliability Analysis Procedure 227  
           12.3.1 Component Analysis 228  
              12.3.1.1 Single-Component Analysis 228  
              12.3.1.2 Systems with Components in Series 230  
              12.3.1.3 Systems with Redundant Components 231  
              12.3.1.4 Common Cause 232  
        12.4 Risk Analysis 232  
        12.5 Failures and Relationships 233  
        12.6 Fault Trees 234  
        12.7 Intelligent Building Automation Reliability 239  
           12.7.1 Computing Reliability 240  
           12.7.2 Hardware Redundancy 241  
           12.7.3 Software Redundancy 242  
  Part II: Integrating Nature and Understanding Behavior 244  
     Chapter 13: Integration of Mother Nature into Smart Buildings 245  
        13.1 Biophilia 245  
           13.1.1 Introduction: What Is Biophilia? 245  
           13.1.2 Biophilic Design 247  
        13.2 Biomimicry 251  
        13.3 Economics of Biophilia 258  
        13.4 The Natural Way Forward 260  
        13.5 Green Areas and Roofs, Green Facades and Walls, Urban Gardening, and Green Corridors 260  
           13.5.1 Green Areas in Cities 261  
           13.5.3 Cooling Effects 263  
           13.5.4 Improved Health and Well-Being and Safety 264  
        13.6 Green Roofs 265  
           13.6.1 Green Roof Construction 266  
              13.6.1.1 The Growing Medium 266  
           13.6.2 Green Roof Plants 267  
              13.6.2.1 Smart Maintenance of Plants on Smart Green Roofs 268  
           13.6.3 Benefits of Green Roofs 269  
        13.7 Green Facades and Green Walls 272  
           13.7.1 Green Facades Plants 272  
           13.7.2 Shading and Cooling of Plants 274  
        13.8 Urban Gardening/Farming/Agriculture 276  
        13.9 Green Corridors 278  
        References 279  
     Chapter 14: Taking Advantage of Natural Elements Surrounding the Building 282  
        14.1 Geothermal Energy 282  
           14.1.1 Introduction to Geothermal Systems 283  
           14.1.2 Applications in Building Systems 283  
           14.1.3 Components of Geothermal Systems 284  
        14.2 Thermocline Lakes 285  
           14.2.1 Introduction 285  
           14.2.2 Application and Components in Building Systems 286  
     Chapter 15: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle 288  
        15.1 How Do We Manage Solid Wastes? 288  
        15.2 How Do We Manage E-waste? 289  
        15.3 Treating E-waste 290  
        15.4 Converting MSW into Charcoal Briquettes 292  
        15.5 Processing Organic Waste 292  
        15.6 Dry Organic Waste Composting 293  
        15.7 Anaerobic Digestion in Communities 295  
        15.8 Who Are These Systems For? 298  
        15.9 Liquid Waste Management 299  
        References 301  
     Chapter 16: The Human Body and Building Synchronization 302  
        16.1 Introduction 302  
        16.2 The Body-Building Environment 303  
        16.3 Electrodynamics of Humans and Buildings 307  
           16.3.1 Radiofrequency Waves and the Human Body 308  
        16.4 Human Body Systems Versus Building Systems 309  
           16.4.1 Human Circulatory Versus Building Hydraulic System 309  
           16.4.2 Human Respiratory Versus Building Air System 312  
        16.5 Human Body System Automation Versus  Building System Automation 315  
           16.5.1 Human Logic Versus Building Control System 319  
     Chapter 17: Understanding the Occupant’s Behavior 323  
        17.1 Sustainability Is About Changing Behavior 323  
           What Makes Us Consume Energy? What Makes Us Waste Energy? And What Makes Us Save Energy? 324  
            Smart Building Design Is About Thinking Outside the Box 325  
        17.2 The Five Root Causes of Energy Consumption: The Five A’s 328  
           Sustainable, Smart Buildings Should Not Be the Exception—They Should Be State of the Art 330  
            It Is Not Just a Lack of Knowledge—It Is a Lack of Will 331  
        17.3 Sustainability Is About Understanding Behavior 332  
        References 334  
  Part III: The Smart Building in the Smart City 335  
     Chapter 18: Vision of Cities: From the Green City to the Smart City 336  
        18.1 Vancouver, Canada 338  
        18.2 San Francisco, USA 339  
        18.3 Oslo, Norway 341  
        18.4 A Walk Through a Sustainable, Eco, Green, Post-­Carbon City District: Experiences of an Inhabitant 346  
        References 349  
     Chapter 19: The Smart Building in the Smart City 350  
        19.1 Smart Buildings and the Urban System 350  
           19.2 A Building Is Not an Island 351  
        19.3 The Accessible Building 353  
           Accessibility Is a Matter of Proximity and Mobility 353  
        19.4 The Connected Building 357  
           19.4.1 The Connected Building Is a Power Plant in a Larger Urban System 358  
           19.4.2 The Connected Building Turns Waste into Valuable Resources 360  
           19.4.3 The Connected Building Manages Water Resources Within Micro Grids 362  
           19.4.4 The Connected Building Is in Constant Exchange with Its Surroundings and the Larger Urban System 364  
        19.5 The Building in Balance with Nature 365  
        19.6 The Smart Building in the Smart City 366  
        References 366  
     Chapter 20: The Journey of Water 367  
        20.1 Background 367  
        20.2 Hydrology 371  
        20.3 Dams/Water/Energy 372  
           20.3.1 Water for Food 372  
        20.4 Smarter Cities 374  
           20.4.1 Know Your Source Water 374  
           20.4.2 Know Your Plumbing Water for Reuse 375  
           20.4.3 Water from the Ocean 377  
           20.4.4 Know Your Behavior 378  
           20.4.5 Know Your Storm Water 378  
     Chapter 21: Integrated Affordable Mobility Solutions in a Smart Neighborhood 382  
        21.1 Sharing Initiatives 385  
           21.1.1 How Does It Work? 388  
        21.2 The Next Big Thing? 388  
           21.2.1 How Does It Work? 389  
        21.3 Combined Integrated Mobility Platforms 390  
        21.4 Delivery Solutions: Drones 390  
        21.5 Automated Vehicles 391  
     Chapter 22: International Rating Systems for Smart Buildings and Smart Cities 392  
        22.1 Rating Systems for Buildings 392  
           22.1.1 BREEAM 393  
           22.1.2 LEED 393  
           22.1.3 Green Globes 395  
           22.1.4 Living Building Challenge 395  
        22.2 Rating Systems for Cities 397  
           22.2.1 ISO 37120:2014 Sustainable Development of Communities: Indicators for City Services and Quality of Life 398  
           22.2.2 STAR Community Rating System 399  
           22.2.3 BREEAM Communities 400  
           22.2.4 LEED Neighborhood Development 400  
           22.2.5 Living Community Challenge 401  
  ERRATUM 406  
  References 407  
  Index 408  


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