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Industrializing Additive Manufacturing - Proceedings of Additive Manufacturing in Products and Applications - AMPA2017
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Industrializing Additive Manufacturing - Proceedings of Additive Manufacturing in Products and Applications - AMPA2017
von: Mirko Meboldt, Christoph Klahn
Springer-Verlag, 2017
ISBN: 9783319668666
363 Seiten, Download: 63508 KB
 
Format:  PDF
geeignet für: Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's Online-Lesen PC, MAC, Laptop

Typ: B (paralleler Zugriff)

 

 
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Inhaltsverzeichnis

  Preface 5  
  Organization 7  
     Organizing Committee 7  
     Members of the Industrial Committee 7  
     Members of the Scientific Committee 7  
  Contents 9  
  Design Tools and Methods 13  
  Evolution of Design Guidelines for Additive Manufacturing - Highlighting Achievements and Open Issues by Revisiting an Early SLM Aircraft Bracket 14  
     1 Introduction 14  
     2 Review of Existing Design Guidelines 16  
     3 Design Task and Requirements 17  
     4 Initial SLM-Design of the Year 2008 18  
     5 Re-designed Bracket of the Year 2017 20  
     6 Conclusion 22  
     References 22  
  A Design Method for SLM-Parts Using Internal Structures in an Extended Design Space 25  
     Abstract 25  
     1 Introduction 25  
     2 Design Method 26  
        2.1 Design Guidelines for Internal Structures 26  
        2.2 Simulation Environment 27  
     3 Adaption of a Demonstrator 28  
        3.1 Clarification of Requirements 28  
        3.2 Definition of Design Space 28  
        3.3 Potential Analysis and Application 29  
        3.4 Dimensioning for Stress Reduction 30  
        3.5 Manufacturing Oriented Detailing 31  
     4 Conclusion 31  
     References 33  
  Exploring the Impact of Shape Complexity on Build Time for Material Extrusion and Material Jetting 35  
     Abstract 35  
     1 Introduction 35  
     2 Method 37  
        2.1 Experiment 39  
     3 Results 40  
        3.1 Shape and Build Time in Material Extrusion 40  
        3.2 Shape and Build Time in Material Jetting 41  
     4 Discussion and Conclusion 42  
     References 43  
  Novel Optimised Structural Aluminium Cross-Sections Towards 3D Printing 45  
     Abstract 45  
     1 Introduction 45  
     2 Manufacturing Processes 47  
     3 Topology Optimisation Approach 49  
     4 Topology Optimisation of Cross-Sections 50  
     5 Finite Element Analysis 52  
     6 Concluding Remarks 56  
     References 57  
  Manufacturing Process Chain 58  
  Finite Element Modeling of Ceramic Deposition by LBM(SLM) Additive Manufacturing 59  
     1 Introduction 59  
     2 Modeling 60  
        2.1 Level Set Method 60  
        2.2 Governing Equations 61  
        2.3 Simulation Configuration 63  
     3 Results and Discussion 63  
     4 Conclusions 66  
     References 67  
  Analysis of the Influence of Shielding and Carrier Gases on the DED Powder Deposition Efficiency for a New Deposition Nozzle Design Solution 69  
     Abstract 69  
     1 Introduction 69  
     2 Material and Equipment 71  
     3 Experimental Procedure 73  
        3.1 Image Analysis Method 73  
     4 CFD Modeling 75  
     5 Results and Short Discussion 75  
     6 Conclusions 77  
     Acknowledgements 78  
     References 78  
  On-Demand Spare Parts for the Marine Industry with Directed Energy Deposition: Propeller Use Case 80  
     Abstract 80  
     1 Introduction 80  
     2 Setup, Materials and Experiments 81  
     3 Process Chain: Design Exploration and Manufacture 84  
     4 Post-processing 89  
     5 Discussion and Conclusion 89  
     Acknowledgment 90  
     References 90  
  Macroscopic Finite Element Thermal Modelling of Selective Laser Melting for IN718 Real Part Geometries 92  
     1 Introduction 92  
     2 Modelling Strategy 93  
        2.1 G-code Interpreter Module 94  
        2.2 Scheme for Energy Input 94  
        2.3 Refining and Unrefining the Mesh 95  
     3 Application 96  
        3.1 Geometrical Parameters 96  
        3.2 Thermal Modelling 97  
        3.3 Mesh Adaptation 97  
        3.4 Model Validation 98  
        3.5 Simulation Results 99  
     4 Conclusions 100  
     5 Outlook 101  
     References 101  
  Additive Manufacturing of Piezoelectric 3-3 Composite Structures 103  
     Abstract 103  
     1 Introduction 103  
     2 Experimental 105  
        2.1 Preparation of Feedstock 105  
        2.2 3D Printing of Feedstock 106  
        2.3 Debinding and Sintering of 3D Printed Ceramic Structures 107  
        2.4 Piezoelectric Composite Fabrication 107  
        2.5 Characterization of 3D Printed Ceramic Structures 108  
     3 Results and Discussion 108  
        3.1 3D-Printing 109  
        3.2 Piezoelectric Composites 110  
     4 Conclusions 112  
     Acknowledgements 112  
     References 112  
  Additive Manufacturing of Semiconductor Silicon on Silicon Using Direct Laser Melting 114  
     Abstract 114  
     1 Introduction 114  
     2 Experimental 115  
        2.1 Direct Laser Melting (DLM) Setup 115  
        2.2 Process 118  
        2.3 Materials 119  
        2.4 Powder Characterization 119  
        2.5 Temperature Measurements 119  
        2.6 Pillar Characterization 119  
     3 Results 120  
        3.1 Powder Characterization 120  
        3.2 Deposition Experiments 121  
     4 Discussion 124  
     5 Conclusions 125  
     Acknowledgments 126  
     References 126  
  Additive Manufacturing of Complex Ceramic Architectures 127  
     Abstract 127  
     1 Introduction 127  
     2 Experimental Procedure 128  
     3 Applications 129  
     4 Automotive Catalytic Supports 129  
     5 Heat Exchangers 130  
     6 Conclusions 132  
     References 132  
  Process Chain Integration 134  
  An Advanced STEP-NC Platform for Additive Manufacturing 135  
     Abstract 135  
     1 Introduction 135  
     2 Current Situation of Additive Manufacturing Digital Chain and Recent Alternatives 136  
     3 New Vision of the Digital Chain with STEP-NC Standard 137  
     4 Additive Manufacturing STEP-NC Model Proposition 138  
     5 Advanced STEP-NC Platform for Additive Manufacturing Architecture 139  
     6 Toward the Integration of Additive Manufacturing in a Multi-process STEP-NC Platform 141  
     7 Conclusion 142  
     References 142  
  Additive Manufacturing on 3D Surfaces 145  
     Abstract 145  
     1 Introduction 145  
     2 The Example of Smart Prosthesis 146  
        2.1 Sensors and Communication Solutions 147  
        2.2 Development of Key Fabrication Steps 148  
        2.3 Fabrication and Testing of Sensors 149  
     3 Discussion and Future Developments 151  
     References 152  
  Integrated Platform for Multi-resolution Additive Manufacturing 153  
     1 Introduction 153  
     2 Materials and Methods 154  
        2.1 Laser Direct-Writing Through Multimode Optical Fibers 154  
        2.2 Compact Drop-on-Demand System 155  
     3 Results and Discussion 156  
        3.1 Laser Direct-Writing Through Multimode Optical Fibers 156  
        3.2 Compact Drop-on-Demand System 156  
        3.3 Possible Industrial Applications of the System 158  
     4 Conclusion 158  
     References 159  
  Enhanced Toolpath Generation for Direct Metal Deposition by Using Distinctive CAD Data 160  
     1 Introduction 160  
     2 Concept of Distinctive CAD Data 161  
     3 Toolpath Strategies 162  
     4 Implementation of the CAM Algorithm 164  
     5 Experimental Validation 166  
     6 Conclusion 168  
     References 169  
  Performance Simulation and Verification of Vat Photopolymerization Based, Additively Manufactured Injection Molding Inserts with Micro-Features 170  
     1 Introduction 170  
     2 Materials and Methods 171  
        2.1 Design of Test Part 171  
        2.2 Tooling 171  
        2.3 Simulation 171  
        2.4 Injection Molding and Thermal Imaging 171  
        2.5 Metrological Assessment 172  
     3 Results 172  
        3.1 Comparison of Thermal Simulations and Temperature Measurements 172  
        3.2 Temperature Development 173  
        3.3 Insert Life Time 173  
        3.4 Inserts Before and After Injection Molding 175  
     4 Conclusions 175  
     References 176  
  Additive Repair Design Approach: Case Study of Transverse Loading of Aluminum Beams 177  
     Abstract 177  
     1 Introduction 177  
     2 Developed Method for Conceptual Design of Additive Repair 178  
     3 Beam Under Transverse Load 179  
     4 Case Study: Simply Supported Beam Under Static Transverse Load 180  
        4.1 Numerical Analysis 180  
        4.2 Experimental Analysis 181  
     5 Results and Discussion 182  
     6 Conclusions 184  
     References 185  
  Quality Assurance 186  
  Controlled Porosity Structures in Aluminum and Titanium Alloys by Selective Laser Melting 187  
     Abstract 187  
     1 Introduction 187  
     2 SLM Process 189  
        2.1 SLM Scanning Strategy 189  
     3 Materials and Methods 190  
        3.1 Experimental Equipment and Material 190  
        3.2 Building of Porous Structures by SLM 190  
     4 Results and Discussion 191  
        4.1 Non-stochastic Porous Structures 191  
        4.2 Foams 193  
     5 Conclusion 194  
     References 194  
  Development and Optimization of an Innovative Double Chamber Nozzle for Highly Efficient DMD 197  
     Abstract 197  
     1 Introduction 197  
     2 Experimental Campaign 198  
        2.1 Evaluated Geometries and Experimental Apparatus 198  
        2.2 Experimental Procedure 199  
     3 Simulations and Numerical Analysis 201  
     4 Results and Discussion 202  
        4.1 Image Elaboration Methodology 202  
        4.2 Experimental Results 203  
     5 Conclusions 204  
     Acknowledgements 204  
     References 204  
  In Situ and Real-Time Monitoring of Powder-Bed AM by Combining Acoustic Emission and Artificial Intelligence 206  
     Abstract 206  
     1 Introduction 206  
     2 Experimental Setup, Material and Acoustic Datasets 208  
     3 Data Processing 209  
        3.1 Wavelet Spectrograms 209  
        3.2 Introduction to Wavelet Spectrograms 210  
     4 Results and Discussion 211  
        4.1 Dynamical Range 211  
        4.2 Classification Results 211  
     5 Conclusions 212  
     References 213  
  Quality Related Effects of the Preheating Temperature on Laser Melted High Carbon Content Steels 216  
     Abstract 216  
     1 Introduction 216  
     2 Methods and Experiments 217  
        2.1 Powder 217  
        2.2 Laser Melting 218  
        2.3 Porosity 218  
        2.4 Temperature Gradient Induced Residual Stresses 219  
     3 Results and Discussion 220  
        3.1 Process Parameters 220  
        3.2 Effect of Baseplate Temperature on Residual Stresses 222  
     4 Conclusions 224  
     Acknowledgements 224  
     References 225  
  Business Cases 226  
  Additive Manufacturing in Automotive Spare Parts Supply Chains – A Conceptual Scenario Analysis of Possible Effects 227  
     Abstract 227  
     1 Introduction 227  
     2 Literature Review 228  
        2.1 Automotive Aftermarket 228  
        2.2 Additive Manufacturing 229  
        2.3 Current State of Research on AM in the Automotive Spare Parts Industry 230  
     3 Results 230  
        3.1 Centralized AM Implementation 230  
        3.2 Hybrid AM Implementation 232  
        3.3 Decentralized AM Implementation 234  
        3.4 Outsourcing of AM 236  
     4 Discussion and Conclusion 238  
     References 239  
  Selection of High-Variety Components for Selective Laser Sintering: An Industrial Case Study 242  
     1 Introduction 242  
     2 Methods 243  
        2.1 Operating Costs for Conventional Production 246  
        2.2 Operating Costs for SLS Production 247  
        2.3 Observed Optimisation Scenarios 249  
        2.4 Definition of Aggregated Lot-Size 250  
     3 Results and Discussion 250  
     4 Conclusions 253  
     References 254  
  Process Setup for Manufacturing of a Pump Impeller by Selective Laser Melting 256  
     Abstract 256  
     1 Introduction 256  
     2 Impeller Geometry 258  
     3 Optimization of Build Direction 258  
     4 Support Design Iteration 1 260  
     5 Support Design Iteration 2 262  
     6 Prototype Design and Manufacturing 265  
     7 Conclusion and Outlook 266  
     Acknowledgment 266  
     References 267  
  Hybrid Integration 268  
     Abstract 268  
     1 Introduction 268  
     2 Sun Sensor Fabrication, Characterization and Validation 269  
        2.1 Quad Cell Approach 269  
        2.2 Printed Components Fabrication and Characterization 270  
        2.3 Sun Sensor Layout and Fabrication 272  
        2.4 Sun Sensor Validation 274  
     3 Conclusions 275  
     Acknowledgments 276  
     References 276  
  Temperature Monitoring of an SLM Part with Embedded Sensor 277  
     Abstract 277  
     1 Motivation 277  
     2 State of the Art 278  
        2.1 Focus of the Present Study 279  
     3 Materials and Methods 279  
        3.1 SLM Setup and Material 279  
        3.2 Temperature Sensors 280  
        3.3 Embedding Concepts 280  
           3.3.1 Cavity Design 280  
           3.3.2 Positioning and Fixation of Temperature Sensors 281  
           3.3.3 Continuation of SLM Process 282  
     4 Results and Discussion 282  
        4.1 Sensing Capability 282  
           4.1.1 Sensor Survival Conditions 282  
           4.1.2 Response Time 282  
     5 Conclusions and Outlook 286  
     Acknowledgements 287  
     References 287  
  Unique Customer Benefits 289  
  Integration of Fiber-Reinforced Polymers in a Life Cycle Assessment of Injection Molding Process Chains with Additive Manufacturing 290  
     1 Introduction 290  
     2 Methods 291  
     3 Results 293  
     4 Conclusion 297  
     References 297  
  Advantages in Additive Manufacturing for a Medium Format Metrology Camera 299  
     Abstract 299  
     1 Introduction 299  
     2 Requirements for Metric Cameras and Development of the ALPA 12 Metric 301  
     3 The ALPA 12 FPS Add|Metric: Technical Basis and Metrical Enhancement 303  
     4 Design Process 304  
     5 Cost Aspect 307  
     6 Evaluation of the ALPA 12 FPS Add|Metric 307  
     7 Summary 309  
     References 309  
  Patient Specific Implants from a 3D Printer – An Innovative Manufacturing Process for Custom PEEK Implants in Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 311  
     Abstract 311  
     1 Introduction 312  
     2 Materials and Printing Process 313  
        2.1 3D Printer 313  
        2.2 PEEK Filament 313  
        2.3 Printing Process 313  
     3 Preliminary Results 314  
     4 Discussion 316  
     5 Conclusion 317  
     References 317  
  Teaching and Training 319  
  Work-Process Orientated and Competence Based Professional Training for Skilled Workers in Laser Additive Manufacturing 320  
     Abstract 320  
     1 Introduction 320  
     2 State of the Art in Professional Training for Additive Manufacturing 321  
     3 Identification of Competencies for Additive Manufacturing 322  
     4 Development of Work Process Orientated Professional Training 324  
     5 Summary and Outlook 327  
     Acknowledgments 328  
     References 328  
  Why Education and Training in the Field of Additive Manufacturing is a Necessity 330  
     Abstract 330  
     1 Introduction 330  
     2 Bachelor Degree 332  
        2.1 Educational Model - Semester Accompanying Project Work 333  
     3 Training in Continuing Education for Professionals 335  
     4 Summary and Outlook 336  
     References 336  
  The Experience Transfer Model for New Technologies - Application on Design for Additive Manufacturing 338  
     Abstract 338  
     1 Introduction 338  
     2 Need for Experience Transfer in Design for AM 339  
     3 Theory and Concept of the General Experience Transfer Model for New Technology 340  
     4 Experience Transfer Model for the Application of Design of Additive Manufacturing 341  
     5 Validation of the ETM with a Swiss SME 344  
     6 Conclusion 346  
     Acknowledgments 346  
     References 346  
  Decision-Making in Additive Manufacturing – Survey on AM Experience and Expertise of Designers 348  
     Abstract 348  
     1 Introduction 348  
     2 Methods 349  
     3 Results 350  
        3.1 Participants of the Survey 350  
        3.2 Basic AM Knowledge of Designers 351  
        3.3 Detailed Knowledge of AM Technologies and Design Rules 352  
        3.4 AM Experience of Designers 353  
        3.5 Attitude of Designers Towards AM Technologies for Final Parts 355  
     4 Discussion 357  
        4.1 AM Knowing of Designers 357  
        4.2 AM Experience of Designers 358  
        4.3 Attitude of Designers Towards AM Technologies for Final Parts 358  
     5 Conclusion and Outlook 359  
     References 360  
  Author Index 362  


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