This book is derived from the proceedings of the International Workshop on Nanomechanics held at Asilomar Conference Grounds in Pacific Grove, California on July 14-17, 2004. Approximately 70 leading experts from academia, government and industrial sectors in semiconductors, computers, communication, information technology, defense, energy, transportation and aerospace attended the Workshop (see the workshop photo taken on July 16, 2004). The main objective was to convene leading researchers in the nanotechnology community to assess the current state-of-the-art and disseminate recent progress, critical issues, barriers to applications, and directions for future research in nanomechanics. Miniaturization of structural components and functional devices such as electronic, optical, mechanical and electric-magnetic parts has been a recent trend, and the pace has accelerated over the past few years. Advances in micromanufacturing, semiconductor processing (e.g., etching, lithography, grafting, etc.), sensors, actuators and microprocessors have opened up a revolutionary path to the development of new technologies such as micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS), micro-engines, smart structures, smart controllers, lab-- a-chip devices, and even bio-medical sensing devices which can detect, analyze, decide and activate appropriate functions in real time. The above-mentioned devices, structures, or systems, have one issue in common. In order to perform their assigned functions, they must maintain their structural integrity and be reliable and durable during their entire designed service life. Thus, strength, durability, and time-dependent mechanical property degradation are major concerns for design engineers and device manufacturers, even though the parts are designed for electronic, magnetic, optical or other functions.